Intervention Methods Comparison

Index

This page aims to demonstrate the OilKiller and George usefulness (value proposition).


OilKiller
it is a small truckable boat suitable for restricted areas under the coast maintenance and cleaning up and in particular suitable for solving the problems posed by European Directives regarding the necessary environmental protection activities on water.


George
it is a small ship suitable, even in the open sea, both for the oil spills remediation, with OilKiller scaled devices, and solid waste collection with a conveyor belt.

In both cases the philosophy is:
1) be effective and efficient without pindaric flights to universal panaceas;
2) and consider the entire operating cycle: how to go to the intervention site, how to run the remediation, how to store the collected pollutants and how to discharge them for the subsequent destiny; with the obligation to perform safe and clean work for operators.
All this in a comparison with the methods and means that are currently offered by the competition.

Social sensitivity towards environmental protection is constantly growing and pollution is increasingly perceived as a society problem. The European Union sets the guidelines that direct the Member States to behave and act according to principles suitable to protect the environment. The Communities must therefore provide for measures that actively contribute to safeguarding the environment.

The Italian Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of the Territory and the Sea (Mattm), in agreement with the Regions, organizes the activities at the level of the sub-regions affected by marine waters. They are: the Western Mediterranean, the Central Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea.
Within each sub-region a lead agency is identified.

The needed activities are those referred to in the Directive 2008/56 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, 17 June 2008 implemented with the Legislative Decree 13 October 2010, n. 190 and summarized as follows:

  • water quality analysis
  • plankton and microplastic sampling
  • definition of the remediation targets by the Public Administrations
  • implementation of remediation
  • measuring results
  • Standard methodologies and procedures have been identified and the three characterizing elements, at national level, are:
    ❶ - standardized and homogeneous analysis and sampling methodologies in all regions
    ❷ - training activities for agency operators to guarantee operating procedures uniformity
    ❸ - standardized data with relative central storage to guarantee collection, management and sharing, also at community level.

    These activities are financed by Mattm for an estimated cost of € 6 million per year.

    The environmental agencies activities can be traced back to 9 modules
    ❶ - water column chemical-physical parameters
    ❷ - microplastics analysis
    ❸ - non-indigenous species
    ❹ - beached waste (by samples picking up)
    ❺ - sediment contamination (by samples picking up)
    ❻ - nutrient input
    ❼ - coral habitat
    ❽ - Maerl habitat (being Maerl a collective name for coral red algae)
    ❾ - seabed habitats subject to physical damage (impact of fishing)

    OilKiller, with a unique vocation for the sea protection, is the perfect machine for the directives implementation in restricted waters below the coast, marinas and industrial ports, canals, rivers and lakes.

    Water Analysis

    The analysis is aimed at detecting the water column characteristics through the depth, temperature, salinity, oxygen, transparency, chlorophyll "a", pH and nutrients concentration parameters acquisition with specific control units.
    OilKiller adopts control units developed with the University of Verona, partner of the IntCatch project.


    Water Analysis Units


    Intcatch Drone

    Activities on the River Po


    IntCatch Unit into the OilKiller Hull

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    Sampling

    The sampling consists of test tubes collection, with a mechanical activity, suitable for laboratory measurements of micro-presences both in the water mass and in the mud of the seabed and coasts (beaches). The activity is used to determine the phyto and mesozooplankton planktonic communities quali-quantitative composition, the macrozooplankton (presence of jellyfish species, ctenophores, taliacei) and of the contaminating concentrations as well as the quantity and type of microplastics and the presence and abundance of not indigenous species (alien species).
    (from the list of priorities of Legislative Decree 172/2015)

    Plankton & Micro-particles

    By hand Scubla Net

    Towed Scubla Net

    Net set-up on the OilKiller
    Different length levers allow greater dives.


    Sludge sampling

    Van Veen Bucket

     

    The different devices needed for the various activities are normally housed in the OilKiller lockers.
    These include Scubla nets, Van Veen buckets, Box-Corers, Echo Multibeam, Side-Scanners etc. which are operated with the help of davits on board.


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    Multibeam and Side Scanner

    They are used for seabed surveying, objects identifying and high resolution images taking.

    Surveys with ultrasound methods

    Side scanner image

    Side scanner

    Side Scanner management with OilKiller


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    Remediations

    A foreign body on the water has 3 possibilities: sink, stay in suspension or float.
    The remediation that we are considering is relative to what floats, liquid or solid; liquids are basically oils derived from hydrocarbons or vegetable and animal fats, solids are rubbish fragments and non-biodegradable plastics.
    Remediation work consists in the removal of these pollutants.

    OilKiller performs mechanical extraction of both liquids and solids.

    Oils and hydrocarbons derived

    With oils we mean numerous substances of vegetable, animal or mineral origin, liquid at ordinary temperature, different in composition and properties but similar each to other for certain external characteristics (oiliness, density generally less than one, insolubility in water, etc.).

    Cleaning and remediation of oily patches or contained spills is performed with one of the following methods:

  • mechanical extraction: with oleophile machines, by suction and by aspiration
  • extraction with absorbent pads and placemats
  • sinking with thickeners
  • dispersion with solubilizers
  • Biodegradation that can be favored by human interventions but that is basically a natural process.

    OilKiller does not provide for the use of thickeners or dispersants; we only deal with mechanical extraction and absorbency.

    Rubbish

    The necessary operations are those referred to in Directive 2008/56 / EC of the European Parliament which provide for measuring of the starting condition, the defining of a goal, the remediation implementing and the results measuring.
    The plastic extraction can only be mechanical while the microplastics reduction will be increasingly in favor of bacteriological biodegradation. The main commitments are dedicated to:

  • Identify and monitor the floating plastics highest concentrations to activate effective remediation
  • Research, develop and produce effective, efficient and economically sustainable remediation's machines

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    Oil Mechanical Extraction

    The adhesion devices work on the principle of adhesion of hydrocarbons to oleophilic surfaces consisting of discs, drums, brushes or ropes.
    The adhesive surface moves through the laminal layer between water and oil and lifts the latter which passes through windscreen wiper or wringing systems that remove it to be collected.
    The weir skimmers are equipped with floats that hold the mouth (entrance) of the device exactly just below the surface of the water, so as to drop the product which is then conveyed through pumps in a tank. The tank acts as a gravity separator; the underneath stratified water comes out through a tap.
    Various systems are all those that can be improvised and adapted to particular circumstances (nets, dredgers, buckets, suction ...).
    from the ISPRA copybooks


    Adhesion Skimmer

    This skimmer type works with a round series side by side in a circular, square or cylindrical shape, which rotate moved by a hydraulic motor and crossing the water surface from the bottom upwards make the hydrocarbons adhere to their surface. The discs surfaces are then cleaned with brushes that drain the hydrocarbons into a central collection well from which the product is sucked.
    The discs are usually metal made and work well with medium light and low viscosity products, with product thicknesses of a few mm upwards.
    Brush skimmers are made with oleophilic brushes rollers that rotate and collect the product from the surface of the water.
    These devices work at a fixed point and always need a boat / support vessel that drops them into the water and supplies energy.

    Display model

    Working schema

    2.000 liters/hour capacity

    600.000 liters/hour capacity

    Towed disk skimmer

    OilKiller equipped with disk skimmer


    Weir Skimmer

    Classic weir skimmer
    There are several weir skimmers kinds but they all work on the same principle: the oil on the water surface falls into a collector that holds its edge just below the surface. The collected skimmed product is pumped into settling tanks.
    This skimmer type is indicated for high thickness spills and in any case greater than 5 mm. These devices work at a fixed point and always need a boat/support vessel that drops them into the water and provides energy.

    Towed weir skimmer
    It is a particular weir skimmer type boxed in a towed structure thus also exploiting a mechanical separation.
    The water flow enters the device and a wing profile separates the water downwards and the hydrocarbons towards a chamber from which it is then sucked.
    The towed skimmer can only be used in calm sea conditions, but guarantees the recovery of large patches of hydrocarbons.
    These devices always require a boat/support vessel to tow them and have pump and tanks on board.
    OilKiller is identifiable in this sort of device

    Working schema

    Weir Skimmer

    Weir Skimmer

    Towed Weir Skimmer

    Towed Weir Skimmer

    OilKiller equipped with a weir skimmer


    Various systems

    These devices require one or more boats/support vessels, frequently large staff, pumps, tanks and often infrastructure on land.
    from ISPRA copybook

    Suction head

    Suction skimmer
    These skimmers fall into the weir category; perform the oil suction through a floating semicircular head in which the suction slot is kept on the water surface; they work with medium-light products and are very efficient for product layers thicker than 5 mm.
    Below OilKiller set up as an extractor. A propeller at the stern of the interceptor generates a flow from bow to stern which allows the septum to separate the mass of water from the free surface with floating oils. The upper flow passes through the filter bags and releases the oily part.
    OilKiller can thus aim bow against a bank to attract and extract pollutants.

    Oleophilic ropes

    Rope mop skimmer
    This skimmer consists of an oleophilic ring brush top which is made to turn between two points that cross the hydrocarbons patch. When the rope passes through the devices that pull it, it is squeezed between two rollers and releases the product. It can work in rough seas conditions because insensitive to the waves movement and also in narrow spaces, for example by passing the rope through openings and slits of wrecks. It is the only skimmer system that can operate under ice sheets of lakes or North seas.

    Pushing tape

    Adhesion skimmer - downward motion oleophilic belt (Sorbent belt)
    There is a type of oleophilic belt skimmer that turns and pushes the floating hydrocarbons under the water surface. The portion of hydrocarbons that is not adsorbed will come off at the lower end of the belt, the adsorbed part will rise and will be detached from the belt by a scraper.
    It works well with rough seas above the grade of the Beaufort scale "3".

    Brush belt

    Skimmer with mechanical separation - belt lifting
    The skimmer works by means of a conveyor belt which moves on an inclined plane in the opposite direction to that in which the device is advancing. The product will remain on the belt and at the belt end will fall into a storage tank. It can be useful when oiled debris of various kinds are present together with the hydrocarbons and works in a wide range of viscosities up to high viscosities or agglomerates just below the surface of the water. It also works in rough seas up to a grade on the Beaufort scale "3".

    Cyclone skimmer

    Hydrocyclone - vortex separator
    In this device the hydrocarbons are separated by centrifugation in a vortex induced by the flow of water in a conical structure. In the vortex liquids of different densities separate and are conveyed and collected in separate outlets. The less dense hydrocarbons are collected in the vortex center and are pumped upwards while the water separates outwards and falls out of the cone by fall. This device can be used in conjunction with other devices such as weir skimmers or induction systems that push water directly on board of support naval units and can be used to reduce the portion of water recovered together with hydrocarbons.

    Centrifugal separator

    Other mechanical recovery systems
    In some cases they can be usedunconventional collection methods. Hydrocarbons floating under the action of weathering can take solid or semi-solid consistency and come in the form of small agglomerations. In this case, the use of hand nets or landing nets from small boats is possible. It is also possible to use fishing nets towed on the surface by two vessels for a larger-scale collection. Finally, in cases where the product accumulates in puddles or it is associated with debris, the use of mechanical shovels or buckets is possible both from the ground and from pontoons or barges.

    OilKiller

    OilKiller works by moving, not at a standstill, and its interceptor conveys the free water surface "film" two meters wide in a narrower area 620 cm wide without creating excessive surface agitation. The aft septum of the interceptor divides the flow into two parts: a lower one that comes out immediately from the interceptor stern and an upper one on which the polluting oils float. The upper flow, let's call it a mixture, is made available for subsequent treatments or devices. The OilKiller's standard operational provides that the mixture, due to the movement of the boat, crosses the plurality of oleophilic elements in polypropylene, graphene, or nano-treated sponges or other elements resulting from future developments so that an absorption of the oily fraction occurs and the consequent release of the cleaned water. In that position different machines can be as well installed with the same purpose of cleaning the water. So downstream of the septum it is possible to install oil-skimmers (see the example of installation of disc or weir skimmers above), suction pipes or other devices that, receiving the mixture, are able to take the oily or the entire part of the flow. It is clear that the filter-bag system makes OilKiller, as qualifying factor, totally autonomous, while other solutions must necessarily provide support vessels that receive the mixture by sucking it with pumps and pipes connected to OilKiller. These differences define the employment theater of OilKiller. In maintenance and cleaning operations the quantity of oil to be extracted from the water is certainly in liters order and therefore the filter-bag system is the most efficient and effective mean. In reclamation interventions for heavy spills it may be appropriate the use of support vessels with the great advantage that OilKiller continues to operate in movement and therefore it is able to navigate in the hydrocarbons wake or patches to be extracted by operating as a piloted skimmer head.

    with a disk skimmer
    with a suction pump
    with a weir skimmer

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    Absorbent Action Products Use

    In policies planning for the hydrocarbon contamination reclamation of the sea ,Italy, in the light of the Mediterranean marine environment vulnerability, carefully applies the precautionary principle through three steps:
  • procedures regulation for the recognition of the suitability of products to be used at sea,
  • the requirement to use absorbent products as a priority,
  • the provision that the possible use, exceptionally, of the dispersing products must be previously authorized by the Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of the Territory and the Sea.

  • When the use of mechanical methods is not sufficient to solve the pollution, these are combined or replaced with absorbent or dispersing products, classified in three categories:
  • Inert absorbent products:
    perform an absorbent action against hydrocarbons and are composed of inert substances from a chemical and biological point of view;
  • Non-inert absorbent products:
    they perform an absorbent action against hydrocarbons but are made up of non-inert substances from a chemical and biological point of view; they can interact with living organisms, which is why the degree of toxicity must be assessed;
  • Dispersing products:
    they are synthetic or natural chemicals that favor the disintegration and dispersion of the hydrocarbon layer in the water column with a surfactant function. Dispersing products therefore do not have the function of physically removing hydrocarbons from the marine environment, but accelerate the processes of natural degradation.

  • In 2009 a new category of products that can be used at sea for the hydrocarbons reclamation was introduced and regulated: those with absorbent action composed of inert materials of natural or synthetic origin. For these products, considered that there were no detectable risks to the marine environment deriving from their use, a simplified procedure, issued with the Decree of March 31, 2009, was considered admissible.
    Therefore products made of materials of vegetable, animal or synthetic origin provided that they are inert from a chemical and biological point of view and which comply with certain conditions and requirements can be directly used at sea for the reclamation of hydrocarbons.

    The absorbent products are made up of materials which, immersed in water preferably absorb hydrocarbons, functioning as a selective sponge that can be recovered together with the oily product.
    The most favorable contexts for their use are:
  • the recovery of the pollutant in limited bodies of water;
  • in combination with standard containment booms, in order to combine the action of containment with that of the absorption of the pollutant;
  • the protection of coast stretches that are difficult to access (e.g. rocky coast);
  • the hydrocarbons recovery downstream of a coastal stretch subject to remediation with a pressure washer;
  • the safeguard of mariculture facilities;
  • the protection of water intakes of fish farming and mussel farming plants or industrial structures.

  • The choice of using this remediation methodology should take place where recovery with mechanical means is not possible due to logistical difficulties or the unavailability of these means. In fact, the disposal of absorbent products impregnated with hydrocarbons is difficult and economically expensive compared to the disposal of oil only. Therefore, the use of absorbent products should be limited to hydrocarbons remediation of limited extension patches and near the coast.


    Absorbent products are available in different forms: booms, sheets, rolls, cushions and pon-pon.


    OilKiller

    in its most advanced configuration, offers 3 types of absorbent materials.

    Grafene
    Provided by Directa Plus, it has very high absorbency values and absorption speed. It is an inert material, looks like a black "powder" and must therefore be packaged in special bags or quilts.
    Approval by the Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of the Territory and the Sea
    Eco-toxicity test
    Certification of toxicity absence for aquatic fauna
    The purpose is the maximum possible effectiveness.


    Graphene packaged for OilKiller

    Nano-treated materials
    The process consists of depositing polytetrafluoroethylene particles on the sponge surface. This treatment makes the material capable of absorbing an amount of oily substance up to thirteen times its weight.
    They have been considered developments of the and University of Sassari as well as other innovative products such as nanotechnology sponges from NorthWestern University of Illinois .
    The purpose is to use materials, for example wood chips made water-repellent and oil-proof, which once impregnated with oily waste are non-toxic and disposable for the landfill in the simplest possible way. Nano-treated sponges can be squeezed and reused.



    Nano-sponge schema

    Sheep wool
    Sheep wool is water-repellent and oil-proof, albeit with lower characteristics than both graphene and polypropylene. In Sardinia, products have been developed for remediation at sea with the Geolana brand.
    The purpose is the recycling of wool from shearing widely available and the use of natural, non-toxic, renewable, easily disposable and ethically certified environmental materials. Impregnated wool can be squeezed and reused.


    Sheep wool adsorbents

    Containment and/or Absorbent Barriers
    from ISPRA copybook

    When oil or hydrocarbon spills occur, it is important to react promptly to contain them, so that they cannot further damage the environment, especially if they occur in the water.
    The classic absorbent barriers have a water repellent and chemical resistant polypropylene interior; they absorb several liters of low viscosity oils but not water and must always be used to effectively contain hydrocarbons, contributing to their removal and preventing them from spreading and therefore causing further damage. When fully saturated the barriers float thus allowing their recovery.
    On the high seas, the barriers are placed by special naval means while below coast and in restricted areas they are placed by hand from small boats, the same with which they will subsequently be recovered.

    Absorbent Barrier

    Containment barrier

    Towed barrier

    Absorbent barrier

    Inside the containment it is necessary to intervene to extract the spilled oils. The methods adopted are mainly the deposition of absorbent cushions and tablecloths, extraction with oleophilic ropes, extraction with disc or brush skimmers, the use of weir or elevator belts.

    Absorbents

    Oil Skimmer

    Towed means

    OilKiller

    Fogli, Rotoli e Cuscini

    The application of sanitary napkins in sheets or in rolls is particularly suitable especially in confined waters or for the recovery of hydrocarbons downstream of a coastal stretch subject to remediation with a pressure washer. The cushions have a greater absorbing power. In restricted waters and below the coast they are deposited by a plurality of personnel and small boats. They are subsequently recovered by hand and deposited in the boats, smearing them heavily. When moored, they are hand-moved to be placed in boxes. The work is very dirty.

    Barriers and sheets

    Sheets and cushions

    Absorbent managing

    Sheets and cushions

    Pom-Pom

    The pom-pom type absorbents can also be used in association with absorbent or containment booms.
    They are useful and effective in spills of highly viscous hydrocarbons because in this case the hydrocarbons are retained above all by the adherence to the absorbent products surface. Generally the whole management is manual with the help of poles and nets for the recovery.

    Pom Pom

    State of the art

    OilKiller


    OilKiller navigates on the oily patches to be removed; the free water surface, with the oil floating on it, is captured by the interceptor and forced to cross a group of oleophiles (in the photo graphene bags). The water flows out of the stern while the oily fractions are captured by the oleophilic elements by contact and remain trapped in them.
    The contact capture mechanism is exactly the same as that achieved by Pom Pom immersed in a current. We will soon test these products to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with those of graphene bags.


    The oil amount that can be absorbed using graphene bags reaches about 25-30 liters for each refill.
    The set of virgin bags can be operated by hand not exceeding one kg of weight while the lifting of the soaked bags (about 30 kg) is managed either by hand or with the help of the davit.


    Oily film thickness

    Since OilKiller is intended to work for cleaning up and maintenance in restricted areas, it is important to evaluate the quantity of oils that may need to be collected and this considering the fact that the pollutions to be removed are typically those oily patches that present themselves with rainbow or silver reflections.

    Spill thicknesses on the water as a function of their color and corresponding oil quantity if the film were continuous and constant.

    graphene bags polypropylene tapes

    OilKiller


    Diorama of OilKiller in action



    OilKiller, embarked on ships in reclamation operations in standard or special versions, is lowered into the sea on the patches to be removed.
    The standard OilKiller will absorb the oils in its filter-bags (about 25-30 litres at a time) with the advantage of being able to take them on with the use of a davit. The saturated filter-bags are made up of their material and the absorbed oil. The mother ship does not embark water. All operations are clean.
    OilKiller equipped with a suction system at the stern of the interceptor allows the mother ship to upload a water-oil mixture with the use of a pump and settling tanks.


    OilKiller embarked on cargo ships occupies a minimum space with an incidence of almost zero cost
    In the event of occasional spills it is lowered into the sea in a few minutes, with a crane, to remedy the damage in a very short time.


    OilKiller, embarked on cruise ships, is lowered into the sea when the ship is at anchor, especially in the shuttles traffic phases to transfer passengers to the ground and back. This activity gives great emphasis to the attention paid by shipowners to the environment respect and protection, generating a significant return of image to the authorities of the water bodies concerned.
    There are populations and Authorities with high environmental sensitivity who would appreciate a lot, in particular in high naturalistic value areas such as the Geiranger Fjord shown in the example image.


    OilKiller is able to collect a volume of about 1/7 m³ (150 liters) of floating debris that remain packed in its net-bag (sieve bag). The full bag is easily and quickly lifted with a davit to be replaced by hand with an empty one.
    This peculiarity makes the maintenance of industrial water mirrors, canal-ports, along lakes etc. particularly effective and efficient.


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    Floating garbage and plastics


    The plastic that ends up in the planet seas causes damage for over $ 13 billion a year, including the fishing and tourism sectors economic losses and the beach cleaning up costs .

    Prevention

    The European Union sets the guidelines that direct the Member States to behave and act according to principles suitable for protecting the environment.
    The Community must therefore envisage measures that actively contribute to safeguarding the environment.

    In Mediterranean Sea

    On the open sea, on the seabed and on the Mediterranean beaches, plastic represents 95% of the waste and comes mainly from Turkey, Spain, Italy, Egypt and France. The microplastics are the smallest and most insidious fragments and reach record concentrations almost 4 times higher than those recorded in the North Pacific "plastic vortex". Microplastics enter the food chain, threaten animal species and are a risk to human health.
    Cleaning and protecting the Mediterranean from plastics is possible but requires the commitment and collaboration of all: institutions, companies and individuals.
    In 2018, UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) placed plastic in the oceans among the six most serious environmental emergencies. Larger waste comes from common and often disposable objects such as bags, filters cigarettes, balloons, bottles, caps, or straws.
    source: Panda.ORG

    Taking care of the ecosystem inevitably means implementing two fundamental practices: prevention and remediation.


    Business Model

    The virtuous action of the TJP initiative plans to identify and implement intervention models (business) to;
  • governments and populations sensibilization referring to the area of intervention
  • attract public and private funding sources
  • give concrete and measurable results in the short run
  • be scalable and duplicable in other contexts
  • beeconomically as sustainable as possible
  • generate jobs and redistribute of income
  • encourage the development of recycling activities
  • give the maximum guarantees of success
  • Jonathan-George is the device that activates the extraction of plastic from the sea. >>> See the sheet:

    The initiative implementation and success see the maximum commitment in communication.
    The only device to be produced is the George boat.
    Containers, container ships, container terminals, cranes, lorries and trucks, container carrier trains and plastic separation and recycling centers are all means and infrastructures that already exist.
    The mother ship, with containers and George boats on board, reaches the intervention site and drops the boats into the sea. Each boat carries and fills its container and give it back to the ship's side where an empty container is lowered to rechange the full one that is hoisted on board. In bad weather occasion, the mother ship hoists all the boats on board, making them safe. When all the containers are full there are two chances: or the mother ship with the George on board sail back to the port to unload the full and load the empty containers or a second mother ship with empty containers reaches the intervention site to replace the first mother ship.


    The George System Logic Line

    George was not born from the intention of "inventing" the best means of extracting plastic and waste from the sea but from the idea of the need to verify the entire garbage recovery cycle, from collection to the final result, to develop a rational, economically sustainable system , feasible on a large scale and certainly effective.
    The logical path followed is as following:
  • There are rubbish poisonous accumulations on the waters of seas, lakes, rivers etc.
  • International laws are increasingly incisive in imposing reclamations and remediations.
  • There is a social sensitivity to the environmental problem and it is also always growing.
  • 1) The floating garbage removal is needed.
  • What to do with?
  • 2) According to the trajectory of the sustainable and circular economy, it is necessary to recover what is useful and recyclable from the garbage .
  • Are there cost limits for environment or you can spend any amount?
  • 3) The social acceptable and sustainable cost is a must; possibly to be spread over numerous funding sources.
        An excessive cost makes the continuous and effective implementation of any idea unacceptable and therefore impossible.
  • Why must operations be continuous over time to be effective?
  • 4) The garbage amount to be collected at the various accumulation points is always in the tons hundreds of thousands order.
        To have an effective result you need to work every day for years, with any existing or futuristic device.
  • Where do we have to carry this garbage?
  • 5) In sorting and recycling centers. In Italy the CoRePla consortium members?
  • How the transport must be performed to be economically acceptable?
  • 6) With traditional and normally available existing means: ships, trucks and trains.
  • So we have to extract the garbage from the water, bring it to the ground, load it on a transport and unload it in a recycling center.
  • What is the best packaging system for these movements?
  • 7) The container.
        The container is an existing, standardized and universally distributed tool.
        The only necessary feature is that the used containers are able to let out excess water.
        At sea there there is a types plurality of container ships, from very small to immense and setted up with any equipment.
        On land there are terminals port perfectly equipped to manage them and in that transport specialized trucks and trains.
        In recycling centers they can be rationally stored without making too much dirt.
  • Where are these garbage located?
  • 8) The garbage is offshore, from a sailing few hours to a few days.
  • What is the most tested and used system so far for extracting solids from water?
  • 9) The lifting conveyor: it is a "rough" but extremely reliable machine, easy to manufacture and simple to maintain, with sure effectiveness.
  • What if we use large lifting belts equipped ships?
  • 10) These large ships should be designed and built and they would have such a cost that prevents their widespread diffusion.
        They would end almost inevitably to upload loose garbage into the hold.
        In the port, it would be necessary to extract the garbage from the hold with buckets and deposit it in the containers: a long and not very clean job.
        The round trip time between the intervention site and the port and the unloading time would be subtracted from the remediation time.
        The single ship characteristics (extraction capacity) would be univocal and not adaptable to the intervention site
  • Could garbage and plastics separation, treatment and container storage be carried out on the ship?
  • 11) On a ship it is possible to carry out any activity and organize any workshop.
        It's clear that the same activity carried out at sea instead of ashore has a multiplied cost.
        Factory ships for the immediate processing of the catch fish, for example, are functional to the fact that the fish deteriorates.
        Garbage does not deteriorate and how to work has therefore only the economic lowest cost dependence.    
  • What alternative solution can be adopted?
  • 12) Use boats capable of directly loading containers,
        that don't have to return to port with every load,
        that they should not sail on the high seas, because they are unsuitable,
        that can be protected from sea storms and tears,
        that can be displaced in large numbers,
        that are cheap.
  • Do boats with these characteristics exist on the market or in the state of the art?
  • 13) The existing boats unload the crop on the deck or in for each boat characteristic cases and in any case not in standard containers.
  • So a new and specialized boat for this type of intervention is needed?
  • 14) An innovative boat is needed and this boat is "George".
  • And how do we get it to the intervention site?
  • 15) George is carried by the container mother ship.
  • What is needed and how is the whole process organized?
  • 15) The single "team" will be setted up as follows:
        - two medium-small size container ships equipped with cranes;
        - an adequate number of non-watertight containers;
        - an adequate number of George boats;
        - a landing in terminal container;
        - trucks and trains container carrier;
        - recycling center.
  • How is the activity carried out?
  • 16) The single team activity lasts for years and takes place with this cycle:
        a) The first ship, with empty containers and George boats on board, reaches the intervention site;
        b) the first ship drops the George boats into the water and they begin to work continuously;
        c) George boats shuttle between the collection areas and the mother ship;
        d) the ship always occupies a central position with respect to the distribution of George boats;
        e) the ship hoists the full containers and provides the replacement by lowering the empty ones;
        f) when the full containers load is almost finished the second ship, with a load of empty containers, leaves the terminal;
        g) when the second ship reaches the intervention area the first leaves and returns;
        h) the first ship docks with the loading of containers that are landed with direct loading on trucks or trains;
        i) in case of bad weather the mothership hoists the George boats on board, making them safe;
        l)spare parts and workshop for George boats maintenance or repair are on board the mothership.
  • How do you find necessary devices and services?
  • 17) Ships and containers for hire
        terminals, trucks and trains at fare
        George in purchase.
  • How are the costs incurred?
  • 18) Costs must find distributed funding sources:
        states, regions and supranational bodies public funding ;
        private donation;
        tycoon partnerships and companies looking for a positive return on their image;
        sale of the crop to recycling centers (minimum incidence around 0.1 €/kg);
        recycled plastic products added value share (approx. 0.05 €/kg going from 0.1 to 0.15 €/kg);
        general advertising and recycled plastic products sustainability brand .
  • There are several floating waste concentration areas: how long will it take?
  • 19) The needed time, tens of years in anyway, is a direct consequence of the activated teams number.
        The process can be cloned as many times as allowed by economic factors.
        Different teams can be envisaged on the single garbage accumulation area.
        Thousands of boats can be imagined operating in all seas, oceans, rivers and lake different areas .
        The achievable goal is not the floating plastics elimination but a significant damage reduction.

    The state of the art

    realized devices


    futuristic projects


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    Cleaning and maintenance incurred costs indemnifiability

    Personnel costs and hire or purchase of clean-up equipment are eligible for compensation.
    In the case of in stand-by not actually used equipment, the compensation is reduced. They are compensated the “reasonable” incurred costs for the cleaning, the repair or the replacement of the used equipment.
    When cleaning equipment and materials are purchased by the public authorities as part of an anti-pollution response plan the related costs are compensated for a reasonable part of the purchase price.
    The reasonable costs incurred for the collected material storage and dispose are also compensated.
    When the cleaning operations are carried out by public or para-public bodies with permanent staff and owned means, the reimbursable costs are those "reasonable" incurred for the organization and caming from the accident; costs which without this last would not have been supported. A reasonable proportion of the fixed costs is also recognized, i.e. those costs that have been incurred even if the accident has not occurred provided they correspond to the dates on which the cleaning was carried out and they aren't unidentifiable general expenses.
    from ISPRA copybook


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    The Jonathan Project is a SRL in liquidation
    Luigi Perrella, formerly A.D., is the current liquidator. Communications from this site are addressed to luigi.perrella@gmail.com